Material added 7 October 2014
 Vacation Over
 Time to get back to this. Will try to have at least three items a day for awhile as I plow through the backlog.
 OEIS turns 50
 Neil Sloane's OEIS turns 50. OEIS.org turns 50, and Alex Bellos writes it up in the Guardian as Neil Sloane: the man who loved only integer sequences. But that's not true, Neil loves lots of things, like lattices and sphere packings.
 Tetrapents
 George Sicherman: I have not found any 5x5 pentapent solutions, but we can use the 7 tetrapents to make two congruent 28pents, providing that we use one of the tetrapents in both figures. This figure is unique, but the tiling on the left is not.
 TheMetagrobologist Magazine
 TheMetagrobologist Magazine is a very snazzy only magazine devoted to puzzles.
 Covent Garden Floating Market
 A very nice illusion of a floating building.
 The mateinn problem of infinite chess is decidable
 The mateinn problem of infinite chess is decidable  a new paper at arXiv.org.
 Pangrammic Top Ten
 Eric Harshbarger notes that last weeks top ten movies made a pangram.
 Martin Gardner Centennial
 Martin Gardner's 100th birthday is a few weeks away. Scientific American starts off the celebration.
Material added 20 March 2014
 Pentahex Holes
 George Sicherman  This weekend Abaroth sent me the attached picture of the 22 pentahexes. It has 33 holes, and is symmetric too. According to Andrew Clarke's Poly Pages, the old record was 30 holes.
 Toshihiro Shirakawa Polyboxes
 Toshihiro Shirakawa has found a number of new polyboxes.

 Hamiltonian Circuit for Rubik's cube
 A Hamiltonian solution for Rubik's Cube is known.
 Seven, Eight, and Nine Touching Cylinders
 Peter V. Pikhitsa1 and Mansoo Choi have a new paper, Seven, eight, and nine mutually touching infinitely long straight round cylinders.
 INCOME TAX FORM LOGIC PUZZLE
 Mark J. P. Wolf (from my workinprogress book, 101 Enigmatic Puzzles)
Within the new Short Form 1, there is a loophole; with just the right amount of income, you don’t owe any tax at all. Find the one income amount that will result in zero tax owed when the tax form below is filled out. (docx answer)  Recent Anagrams
 Arlo Guthrie's The City of New Orleans = Steel light train confers "How are you?".
I Have No Mouth And I Must Scream = A dour time to humans vs. machine.
Captain America: The Winter Soldier = WARipedia historical reenactment.
American Institute of Bisexuality = Caution: extreme unsatisfiability.
Christopher Nolan films esoteric ~ technothriller for space mission.
WorstCase Scenario Handbook = Coordinate SeahawksBroncos.
Electrochemical fluorination = Lime in the coconut for all I care.
Blockbuster motion picture = Put trust in comic book rebel.
Money is the root of all evil = Some love the irony of it all.
Let's run it up the flagpole = Telling "put up for the sale."
Institutional researcher = "In the literature" narcosis.
"A Tribute to Heroes" = He's about to retire.
Hi, G. Washington! = How's it hanging?
Crimea votes to ~ act more soviet.
Interest group = Peers tutoring.  Heesch2 Polyomino
 Glenn Rhoads found the minimal Heesch 2 polyomino in his 2003 thesis "Planar Tilings and the Search for an Aperiodic Prototile". I haven't seen it elsewhere, so here's a picture:
 Minimal Superpermutations
 123412314231243121342132413214321 has all permutations of "1234", and is minimal. The shortest string for "12345" is unknown. These are called minimal superpermutations, and much harder to find than DeBruijn sequences.
 Oskar Interview
 An interview with Oskar is up, you can also head to Oskar's website, or Oskar's youtube channel.
 Vixelstar
 George Sicherman  Here is a little puzzle that I call the Vixelstar. Just put the pieces on the left together to make the starshaped figure on the right. You may flip pieces over. Also, these pages were all added recently to Polyform Curiosities: Zucca's Challenge Problem for Tetracubes, Pentacubes in a Box, Galvagni Figures & Reid Figures for Polycairos, Tetrahendec Oddities, PentoPentoTrominoes, PentoPentoTetrominoes, Quadruple Pentominoes, and Printable Polycairo Grid.
 Similar Pentomino Shapes
 Livio Zucca: Odette De Meulemeester, George Sicherman and I are trying minimal solutions for each Pentomino, such as the type in the picture.
 Paths Through a Square
 Take 12 points around a square, with points in the corners and 4 points on each side. Join up the points with 6 lines, with no lines connecting points on the same side. The correct answer is 200 ways to do it. If mirror symmetries are removed, then there are 121 ways to do it.
 Top cited Math Papers
 Here's a list of the top cited math papers of all time.
 Attractive Attractors
 I liked this gallery of chaotic attractors.
 The Gentle Art of Filling Space
 A new book about the tiling patterns of Robert Reid is available.
 How to Tie a Tie
 How to knot a tie  177,147 distinct tie knots.
 Weird Paper Sculptures
 By making a huge stack of accordionjoined paper and then chiseling a bust out of it, surprisingly flexible heads can be made.
 Longest Entertainment Assemble?
 Star Trek original cast  25 years.
Jack Benny and Eddie "Rochester" Anderson  28 years.
Cheech and Chong  33 years.
Carson and McMahon  34 years.
Tom Baker and Louise Jameson  36 years.
Burns and Allen  36 years.
Marx Brothers  54 years.
Eddy Christiani and Frans Poptie  64 years.  Modeling a Perfect Pool Break
 Modeling a perfect break in the game of pool with Mathematica.
 Frank Longo Themeless Crossword
 This crossword fill for Fireball by Frank Longa is quite amazing.
 Golly on Android
 The excellent cellular automata program Golly is now available as Golly on Android.
 Wordplay Blog
 The Wordplay Blog at the New York Times has many nice problems, such as the Princess problem.
 Temari Spheres
 A 92YearOld grandmother creates a spectacular collection of embroidered Temari Spheres.
 New Folding Record
 MIT's Infinite Corridor was used to make a new folding record, breaking Britney Gallivan's paper folding record. I got her mentioned in the Numb3rs episode Identity Crisis.
 No Four in a Plane
 There are 38 ways to pick 13 points from a 5x5x5 grid so that no four points are in a plane. There is a unique solution for 8 points from 3x3x3, and 232 solutions for 10 points from 4x4x4. What are solutions for 6x6x6 and up?
Material added Novemeber 14
 Print 3D Puzzles
 Some discussion of Oskar van Deventer and George Miller is in the article The Puzzle Masters.
 Seven Touching Cylinders
 Seven mutually touching infinite cylinders has new solutions. Can 7 indentical toruses touch?
 Ever See A Tree in a Movie?
 Trees for movies are being outsourced to SpeedTree now.
 Not Photoshopped
 The below is a single picture by Béla Borsodi. For how it was done, see his VLP video.
 Martin Gardner  The Best Friend Mathematics Ever Had
 Colm Mulcahy wrote a blog article on Martin Gardner.
 Snake Polyominoes
 Shade 16 squares in a 5x10 rectangle so that the remaining square make an obvious path. The resulting snake polyomino is unique.
 New Morpion bound
 Morpion Solitaire 5D: a new upper bound of 121 on the maximum score.
 nbody Orbits
 I love the 5 pointed star orbit in this Scientific American blog.
 Ruben's Tube
 Sound, fire, and sine waves are shown in a Ruben's Tube (youtube).
 Loss of a Mail Service
 For fifteen years, I had a system for doing updates involving mail sorting and sending messages to tabs. Sometimes dozens of tabs as I boiled down an update. Unfortunately, Yahoo decided to kill the mail service I was used to, and it's taken me a long time to recover. Part of the process was keeping up with the mail, which I find harder to do in the "new and improved" systems. I'll agree that they look better.
 Party Like it's 19999999...
 2 10^1059002 1, or 19999999999999...9999, is prime. It's the first nearrepdigit prime found with over a million digits. Found by Serge Batalov.
 Impossible Fractal Sphere
 I liked this impossible fractal sphere.
 Attacking a Triangle
 For an order 20 triangle, 9 vertices can be selected that attack all other vertices.
 All the colors
 At allRGB, interesting math produces 4096x4096 images where every pixel is a different color.
 Doyle Spiral
 The Doyle spiral circle packing is quite beautiful.
 Lines through the United States
 Connect two points of the same US state with a straight line. What's the most other states the line can pass through? Lines through States has the answer.
 Prisoners Dilemma
 Prisoners do better with Prisoner's Dilemma than normal students.
 New Puzzles
 The 2013 Nob Yoshigahara Puzzle Design Competition has the 2013 entries and winners.
 Balloon pyramid
 I also liked this enormous Sierpinski tetrahedron made of balloons.
 Some Anagrams
 Climate change deniers ~ maligned earth science.
Wimbledon Tennis Tournament = MountbattenWindsor Linemen.
Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans = Conan O'Brien, Marvels' Agents of SHIELD
GRAND THEFT AUTO FIVE + BUENOS AIRES POLICE == THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION + COPS.
Animated TV series ~ is a advertisement.
Incarnadines ~ in sardine can.
Malnourishment = The norm in a slum. (Anagram by Christopher Sturdy)
A cheap costume = Cape, moustache. (anagram by nedesto)
Professor Stephen Hawking = He gets known for his papers. (anagram by Larry Brash)
"I'm so ready for a new chapter" > "Fancy a road trip somewhere?" (Twitter's Anagramatron)
Being sober = No big beers. (anagram by Ivan Andonov )
Eleanor Rigby = Yer ignorable. (( anagram by Mike MestertonGibbons ))  Secret Trig Functions
 From the Onion  everyone neglects the Hacovercosine ... including me.
 Seven Consecutive Consonants
 A "backlit LCD screen" has 7 consonants in a row. Find some other items with this property.
1. A wellknown phrase.
2. A wellknown movie.
3. A 2nd grade math topic.
4. A beverage.
5. A piano tune.
Material added 711
 Harvey Heinz passes
 The maker of the foremost magic squares site, magicsquares.net (mirrored at recmath.org), died on July 6, 2013. In 1958, he got 5 tons of obsolete equipment from a telephone company and start a computer club with high school students. In 1973, his efforts to bring electronic games to market were unsuccessful, so he turned to bookbindery until 1991 and retired. A biography is at multimagie.com.
 No Three In A Line Paper
 I was looking for Flammenkamp's page on the Nothreeinline problem, and found the paper "Martin Gardner's minimum no3inaline problem". It deals with the opposite problem  put a minimum number of counters on a board so that it's impossible to add another counter without creating three in a line.
 Puzzle Solving Cockatoos
 Cockatoos are rather good at solving parrotfriendly puzzles.
 Wolfram Technology Conference, October 2123
 I'll be at the Wolfram Technology Conference.
 Poolazoid Puzzle
 From George Sicherman: Here is a puzzle to cool off with. It's called the Poolazoid Puzzle. Just put the pieces together to form a right triangle. You may flip them over. (You can also take a look at the solution.)
 Roll Three 8sided Dice
 The IBM Ponder This problem for July 2013 throws an 8 sided die 3 times, and can get 120 possible different positive integer sums. If all the faces have positive integer sides, what is the lowest possible value for the highest face? For an n sided die, the maximal number of different sums is atetrahedral number. Here are my best results for d3d7.
d3: 1, 2, 5  10 sums
d4: 1, 2, 8, 12  20 sums
d5: 1, 2, 16, 19, 24  35 sums
d6: 1, 3, 12, 27, 43, 46  56 sums
d7: 1, 2, 8, 51, 60, 79, 83  84 sums The d8 is the contest problem, so don't post that answer. I'm curious about d9, d10, and so on. I used a sieve method, but it doesn't scale up well. (I posted this at math.stackexchange.com. There is also a reddit discussion.)  Number Maze
 joedev made a great series of number mazes.
 Advance in Elliptic Curve Theory
 There are advances on the Minimalist Conjecture.
 Ancient Greek Geometry Challenges
 These geometry challenges are quite well done, all with an HTML5 interface.
 ANAGRAMATRON
 Bruce Oberg pointed me to Anagramatron, which scrapes Twitter and looks for anagrams.
I should not be awake right now = I wonder who she is talking to.
"Holy crap I'm late" ~ "metaphorically"
Absolutely apathetic = Especially about that.  2^{1061}1 Factored Last Year
 The Cunningham Project factored 2^{1061}1 last year.
 Crawling Metal Polyhedron
 I liked this slowmoving walking metal polyhedron.
 Rolling Shutter Photos
 Based on the below image, determine the number of propellers and how fast they were moving. Or see the rolling shutter photo analysis.
 Ghost Diagrams
 At Ghost Diagrams, shapes with rules try to fit together.
 Paul Nylander's Math Artwork
 I'm not sure if I've linked to Paul Nylander's Math Artwork site, yet.
 Proofs with Problems
 I liked the wikipedia Proofs with Problems, and also the mathoverflow discussion.
 Covering the Alphabet
 Queen Alexandra of Yugoslavia and Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. are two names in Wikipedia that cover the alphabet. Is there a shorter pair of names with the same property?
Material added 28 May 2013
 Prime Gap
 The ternary Goldbach conjecture is proven. Every odd number over 5 is the sum of 3 primes. The proof by H. A. Helfgott is just 133 pages long.
 Prime Gap
 Zhang Yitang has proved that for some number N less than 70 million, there are infinitely many prime pairs that differ by N. His paper was accepted by Annals of Mathematics in early May.
 Naoki Inaba Puzzles
 Naoki Inaba has been updating his aweinspiring puzzle site with pictures. If you have Chrome, the page can be translated to the language of your choice.
 Siggraph Papers
 video of Siggraph technical papers. I want to effortlessly do all these sorts of graphics NOW, dammit.
 Reel Physics
 Movies frequently contain a lot of bad physics, and some of these instances are explored in Reel Physics.
 Laser Maze
 In Laser Maze, a 25square grid has targets, mirrors, beamsplitters, gates, and a laser. With a certain amount given within 60 challenges, you'll need to light up all the targets. Another great puzzle from WeiHwa Huang.
 Least Efficient Packing Shapes
 Least efficient packing shapes: We address the question of which convex shapes, when packed as densely as possible under certain restrictions, fill the least space, leaving the most space empty.
 Martin Gardner in the TwentyFirst Century
 Martin Gardner in the TwentyFirst Century has columns on Geometry, Number Theory, Graph Theory, Flexagons, Packing, Playing Cards, and more. Of the 41 articles, 8 were written by Martin Gardner. Many articles update material from Martin's columns.
Material added 5 5 2013
 The State of the Unit: The Kilogram (Successful!)
 I've been supporting various Kickstarter projects, and one of them is by my Numb3rs colleagues, Michael Trott and Amy Young. The State of the Unit: The Kilogram collect up the huge amount of interesting facts about the kilogram, and attempts to move away from the platinum cylinder in France. Please consider supporting this documentary about the current state of the art in physics, and all the amusing things that can go wrong when going after .99999999999 accuracy.
 Mrs. Perkins's Quilts
 Lorenz Milla and Stuart Anderson recently extended the known results of Mrs. Perkins's Quilts.
 Period 43 Oscillators in Life
 AP Goucher reports that stable reflector in Conway's Gaome of Life has been found by Mike Playle. The reflector has a recovery period of 43, which allows all oscillators of periods 43 and above to be made. Goucher also put together known spaceships into Ford circles, including a tiny new tiny c/7 spaceship by Josh Ball. Dave Greene: "I see you've updated your Prize Page for a small 90degree stable reflector in Conway's Life. I called this object a Snark back when it was just a mythological hypothetical creature. I've sent the $100 to Mike Playle, so I'm finally free from prize promises after a drawnout dodecade. Mike has decided to continue the tradition, now in its third round, of recycling part of the prize money into a new prize."
 After 100 Years, Ramanujan Problem Solved
 My colleague Oleg Marichev noticed the line "We do not record the value here, because it is not particularly elegant" in one of Berndt's books on Ramanujan, but Oleg went ahead and tried his hand at it, and found a short, elegant solution. It's very likely a solution Ramanujan meant to write down. I helped write up the whole story at After 100 Years, Ramanujan Gap Filled.
 Sicherman Updates
 George Sicherman has sent in updates on Didrafter Compatibility, Polyking Exclusion, Triangular Enneiamond Compatibility, Knight's Move Cell Shifts, Holey Heptomino Compatibilities, PentoTetroTetrominoes, Ying/Yang Pentomionos, Polycube Symmetries, Ways to make an irregular Sudoku grid with 3 shapes (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). He also sends a puzzle. "These are the six didrafters. Join two of them, then join two others to make the same shape. There are four solutions. (sol 1, sol 2, sol 3, sol 4)". Below that, he shows how the H and triangle 7/9iamonds are compatible.

 Highcastle Chess
 The Zillions version of Highcastle chess at the Chess Variants site has had an error, which Karl Scherer fixed for me. In this variant, any piece may move two squares towards a target piece, and the target is moved to the square moved over. Highcastle Chess Zillions.
 Temple Trap
 Raf Peeters: I noticed on Amazon that you liked my Temple Trap puzzle game I designed for SmartGames. A digital version of Temple Trap has been releasedin HTML5. All challenges of Temple Trap on the digital version are different from the ones in the physical version.
 Tiled Rectangle
 What is the fewest squares an n×m rectangle can be cut into? Bertram Felgenhauer has found solutions up to 300×300 rectangles, which I've also turned into a Minimally Squared Rectangles demonstration.
 Nontrivial Games
 JeanCharles Meyrignac: I just discovered the Nontirivial Games blog. It's about logic puzzles on the iPhone and iPad. What is interesting is that the author is named Nicola Salmoria, and he is the original author of Mame.
 Math Lab
 There has been a Math Lab Bust.
 345 Pentagon Dissection
 Serhiy Grabarchuk: In your material added on April 20, 2011, I've spotted George Sicherman's solution for the 3^2 + 4^2 = 5^2 dissection problem (at Math Magic) for the pentagon. I've improved it, getting two slightly different solutions with less parts (1). Solution 1 is especially interesting, since it contains in the final big pentagon three smaller unbroken pentagons.
 Rectangle coloring
 Can you fourcolor a 17×17 rectangle so that there are no monochromatic rectangles? Bernd Steinbach and Christian Posthoff solved it, and then bumped it up to a 18×18 coloring.
 3 Notch Tetrominos
 Peter Esser notes that there are 64 Ttetrominoes with 3 notches, and they will fit into a 16×16 square with all the notches lined up.
 Uncrossed Leaper Tours
 Alexander Fischer has put together a page on Uncrossed Leaper Tours. Related to this is Zigzag Paths results. JeanCharles Meyrignac: "This reminded me about the impressive Russian site on uncrossed kinight's tours."
 Polyhedra site
 A nice polyhedra site is Java Applets for Visualizing Polyhedra.
 Attractive Attractors
 At Behance, a nice set of Strange Attractors was put together.
 Life is a Game
 Emrehan Halici's Life is a Game TED talk is up.
 Advanced Roshambo
 The higher levels of Roshambo are quite impressive.
 Scooping the Loop Snooper
 It's possible to prove the undecidability of the halting problem, as Seuss.
 A Boy and his Atom
 IBM has successfully replaced actors with carbon monoxide molecules in A Boy and his Atom.
 No Repeated Distances
 The Al Zimmermann Programming contests have had many interesting results. I recently did a demo for No Repeated Distances.
 Glass Crack Count gives Projectile Velocity
 It would have been nice on Numb3rs: Counting cracks in glass gives speed of projectile.
 GED Prep
 Aspen High School. One of the older online high school and GED prep websites, www.MyGED.com offers an online high school diploma class which covers basic subjects including Math.
Material added March 5th
 A Square in 50 Similar Acute Triangles
 Lew Baxter has divided a square into 50 similar triangles with angles 456075. With b=sqrt(3), the points are {{0,0}, {3492210b,0}, {3890140b,0}, {428870b,0}, {4686,0}, {3000116b,49294b}, {339846b,49294b}, {359711b,49294b}, {3796+24b,49294b}, {4194+94b,49294b}, {2262+25b,1230235b}, {2859+130b,1230235b}, {3456+235b,1230235b}, {1260+45b,1260+45b}, {1746105b,1260+45b}, {2232255b,1260+45b}, {1428+51b,1428+51b}, {1278+213b,2214423b}, {1278+213b,1278+213b}, {1980+517b,2706517b}, {0,1491+639b}, {1278+213b,3408213b}, {0,4686}, {1305+465b,0}, {2736237b,756+27b}, {1278+213b,756+27b}}, and the triangles use points {{6,7,2}, {3,2,7}, {7,9,3}, {4,3,9}, {9,10,4}, {5,4,10}, {11,12,6}, {8,6,12}, {12,13,8}, {10,8,13}, {14,17,15}, {15,17,18}, {16,15,18}, {19,17,18}, {1,21,19}, {21,19,22}, {23,22,21}, {13,11,20}, {20,18,11}, {22,20,18}, {1,14,24}, {2,25,24}, {24,26,25}, {25,16,26}, {26,14,16}}.
 Turmites

I wrote a column on Turmites 9 years ago, and these have shown up on Wikipedia's Turmite / Langton Ant pages. They can be run in Golly, with the help of a 32bit Python installation. More recently I've been interested in the Busy Beaver problem, which I reformulated as "When does a machine become predictable?" Certainly a Halt starts a perion of predictability, but also Traps, Highways, Spirals, Wedges and Sequences are predictable behavior. All sorts of activity is now documented at (I didn't pick the name) Ed Pegg Jr's Busy Beaver Turmite Challenge. Here are the results so far  for single state machines with cyclic coloring, Right Uturn Left Straight (RULS) can describe the rule.
2color3color4color5color1state9,977 steps
{{{1,2,0},{0,8,0}}}
Langton's Ant67,620,060 +10 steps
RSU
Hutton/Pegg
9 unresolved~6,650,200,000 steps
URLL
Georgi Gochev
94 unresolved]~217,782,000,000 steps
RUUUL
Ed Pegg Jr
615 unresolved2state~3,511,330,000,000 steps
{{{1,2,0},{0,1,1}},
{{0,2,0},{1,2,1}}}
Georgi Gochev
570 unresolved1.9*10^61 steps
{{{1,1,1},{0,8,1},{1,1,0}},
{{2,8,0},{1,1,0},{1,1,1}}}
Georgi Gochev??????
 Largest Prime
 The largest known prime is 2^{57,885,161} − 1, with 17,425,170 digits. The top 100 Prime list, and the top Probable Prime list might also be of interest.
 Tetrahedron Centers
 I've always liked triangle centers (ETC, mathworld, wikipedia, cubics), so I've often wondered about tetrahedron centers. I've got a method for calculating lots of them, but I haven't found elegant form of Trilinear Coordinates. Any insights would be appreciated.
 Button Men
 I've recently gotten obsessed with the old game Button Men (wikipedia, boardgamegeek, cheapass, randomdice, blog, iOS version).
 Payback Percentages
 Payback percentages are the amount a slot machine must return, and they are defined by law. According to a site explaining how to win at slot machines, the state with the lowest minimum payback is Nevada with 75%, and the state with the highest is Maine with 89%. I never would have guessed that. Much of optimizing life as a gambler now involves researching the law. For example, for poker, the site legaluspokersites.com covers New Jersey Law as it relates to poker.
Site Goals
Martin Gardner celebrates math
puzzles and
Mathematical Recreations. This site aims to do the same. If you've made
a good, new math puzzle, send it to ed@mathpuzzle.com.
My mail address is Ed Pegg Jr, 1607 Park Haven, Champaign, IL 61820.
You can join my moderated recreational mathematics email list at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/mathpuzzle/. My facebook page is at Ed Pegg Jr.